文章来源: PG电子发布时间:2021-09-13 00:41
本文摘要:埃塞俄比亚—中国经贸互助ETHIO – CHINA ECONOMIC AND TRADE COOPERATION历史沿革HISTORICAL EVOLUTION中国和埃塞俄比亚两国于1970年正式建交,在此之前,中国总理周恩来曾于1964年到访埃塞俄比亚。作为回访,埃塞俄比亚的天子海尔·塞拉西一世于1971年会见北京。 此外,在同一年,埃塞俄比亚和中国两国签订了首份商业协议。在随后的德格政府执政期间(1974—1991年),埃中两国来往逐渐增多。


埃塞俄比亚—中国经贸互助ETHIO – CHINA ECONOMIC AND TRADE COOPERATION历史沿革HISTORICAL EVOLUTION中国和埃塞俄比亚两国于1970年正式建交,在此之前,中国总理周恩来曾于1964年到访埃塞俄比亚。作为回访,埃塞俄比亚的天子海尔·塞拉西一世于1971年会见北京。


这期间双方签订了一系列协议,包罗第二次商业协定(1976年)、商业条例(1984年,1986年和1988年)以及掩护双边投资协定(1988年)。德格政权倒台后,埃塞俄比亚于1991年建设联邦民主共和国, 埃中两国关系获得进一步增强。两国高层互访不停增多,并签订了两份具有里程碑式意义的协定,划分是1996年签订的商业、经济和科技互助协定以及2009年签订的消除重复计税协定。

2017年5月,埃中两国关系升级为全面战略同伴关系,充实体现了双方坚定的互助关系。China and Ethiopia established diplomatic relations in 1970, following Premier Chou-En Lai’s visit to Ethiopia in 1964. This was reciprocated by the Ethiopian Emperor Haileselassie’s visit to Beijing in 1971. This year also marked the first ever Trade Agreement signed between Ethiopia and China. With the coming to power of the Derg regime (1974–1991), the intensity of bilateral relationships significantly increased. A number of agreements were signed during this period, including, the second Trade Agreement (1976), Trade Protocols (1984, 1986, and 1988), and an Agreement for Mutual Protection of Investment (1988). Ethio – China ties have continued to strengthen after Derg’s removal from power and the formation of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in 1991. High level visits and interactions became more frequent, and two major milestone bilateral agreements were signed, for Trade, Economic, and Technological Cooperation (1996) and to Eliminate Double Taxation (2009). In May 2017, Ethio-China relation was elevated to a Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation Partnership level, in demonstration of the strong and unique partnership the two nations enjoy.已往50年间,两国历届政府密切互助,不停扩展双方经贸互助的深度和广度,体现了埃中两国深厚的关系。鉴于已往十几年间经济双位数的高速生长,以及接纳类似的生长模式,与30—40年前的中国相比,今天的埃塞俄比亚在商业情况方面与中国有许多相似点。

由于天然熟悉这种商业情况,中国投资者很早就来到埃塞俄比亚开展投资,充实抓住了埃塞俄比亚经济增长的机缘。The fact that successive regimes of government in both countries worked hard to maintain and broaden the scope of economic ties and cooperation over the last five decades, is a testament to the enduring nature of Ethio – China relationship. Owing to its developmental state model and the rapid double-digit economic growth it registered over a period of more than a decade. There are also similarities between the business environment of Ethiopia and that of China 30 – 40 years ago. Comfortable and familiar with the operating environment, Chinese investors were among the first wave of foreign investors to take advantage of the opportunities presented by Ethiopia’s growing economy.随着埃塞俄比亚决议设立驻中国大使馆和新建三个领事馆(上海、重庆和广州),两国经贸联系到达了新的高度。同样的,埃塞俄比亚航空现在已开设了直通中国5个都会的航班。

新冠肺炎疫情的到来导致航班和搭客人数大幅下滑,但在此之前,这些航班每年能够运载凌驾100万的游客往来中国和埃塞俄比亚以致非洲各国之间。只管受到疫情影响,但埃塞俄比亚航空飞往中国的航班并未停运,现在仍然是毗连中国与世界各地的重要货运通道。The economic and trade exchange of both countries has now reached a level where the Ethiopian government has decided to establish three consulate offices (Shanghai, Chongqing, and Guangzhou) in addition to the Embassy in Beijing. Similarly, the Ethiopian airlines currently have direct flights to more than five destinations in China. Before the COVID-19 pandemic took hold, and resulted in unprecedented decline in number of flights and passengers, the airline was transporting up to a million passengers a year between China and Ethiopia and the rest of Africa. The Ethiopian Airlines has continued to fly to China even during the Covid-19 crisis, and currently serves as one of the main carriers for cargo from China to the rest of the world.埃塞俄比亚—中国经济互助关系ETHIO – CHINA ECOMOMIC PARTNERSHIP加入重要的互助平台Participation in key cooperation platforms埃塞俄比亚努力到场了由中国政府搭建的多个平台,并与其它非洲国家深入生长经贸关系。

埃塞俄比亚政府高层和民间企业代表到场的主要平台包罗:Ethiopia has been actively and prominently taking part in various platforms created by the Chinese government to nurture and develop its economic and trade ties with African countries. Some of the major events in which high level Ethiopian government officials and representatives of private sector actively participated include:中非互助论坛: 现在是中非互助方面最大和最具成效的平台。2000年以来,埃塞俄比亚努力到场中非互助论坛峰会和部长级集会,并于2003年12月在亚的斯亚贝巴举行了第二届中非互助论坛部长级集会。2018年9月,在上台仅仅几个月后,埃塞俄比亚总理阿比·艾哈迈德·阿里就到访北京到场第六届中非互助论坛峰会。


一些大型的投资项目自2000年头开始运作,这主要得益于埃中两国政府和民营企业代表在首届中非互助论坛和分论坛上的洽谈互助。Forum for China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC):Arguably the biggest and most effective platform for China-Africa cooperation. Ethiopia has been actively taking part in the FOCAC summits and ministerial conferences that were being held since 2000. The country was also a host to the 2nd FOCAC Ministerial Conference in Addis Ababa, in December of 2003. Only a few months after coming into power, PM Abiy Ahmed visited Beijing in September of 2018 to attend the 6th FOCAC summit. FOCAC has been an effective platform for cementing Ethio-China political and economic relationships. Chinese investment in Ethiopia was non-existent when the first FOCAC summit was held in Beijing in 2000, by the time the 6th summit was held in 2018, Chinese FDI stock in Ethiopia had exceeded USD4 billion. Some of the major investments sourced from China since the early 2000’s, resulted from discussions held between Ethiopian and Chinese government officials and private sector representatives during the summit and on the sidelines.中国国际入口展览会: 2018年首届中国国际入口展览会举行,埃塞俄比亚政府和民营企业努力到场。

进博会极大地推进了埃塞俄比亚和中国企业之间的经贸往来。埃塞俄比亚的主要出口商到场了2018年和2019年两届进博会,签订了大量的咖啡、芝麻和大豆商业协议。进博会的结果也有效增加了埃塞俄比亚的出口,并降低了双方的商业不平衡的水平。China International Import Expo (CIIE): Ethiopian government and private sector have been actively participating in the China International Import Expo (CIIE), since the yearly event begun in 2018. CIIE has been instrumental in creating the platform for the facilitation of trade and investment deals between local and Chinese business people. Top Ethiopian exporters that took part in both the 2018 and 2019 events have returned back with initial agreements for large volumes of coffee, sesame, and soybean exports to China. The outcomes from this expo have contributed to enhancing Ethiopia’s export performance, and narrowing down the current level of trade imbalance between Ethiopia and China.中非经贸展览会:自2018年中非经贸展览会首次在中国长沙举行以来,埃塞俄比亚便深入到场其中。

埃塞俄比亚的咖啡、芝麻、大豆和皮革企业都到场了展览会。埃方代表团和埃塞俄比亚投资委员会在展览会期间举行了投资论坛和集会。China Africa Economic & Trade Expo (CAETE): Ethiopia had a high-profile participation at the first ever China Africa Economic & Trade Expo held in Changsha, China, in July of 2018. Ethiopian businesses in coffee, sesame, soybean, and leather took part in the event. The Ethiopian mission to China and EIC also organized investment forums and meetings on the sidelines of the event.一带一路:“一带一路”倡议是埃中全面互助需要遵循的框架。

埃塞俄比亚是“一带一路”倡议的重要互助方,现在与中国和地方政府互助开展大型基础设施生长项目,包罗由中方承建和融资支持的埃塞俄比亚—吉布提铁路项目。Belt & Road Initiative (BRI): The BRI remains to be an over-arching framework for Ethio – China cooperation. Ethiopia is a key partner to the BRI, and is undertaking major infrastructural and developmental projects along the Belt and Road, in cooperation with the Chinese and regional governments. Notable among these is the Ethio-Djibouti Railway project constructed by a Chinese contractor and with financial support from China.互助领域Areas of cooperation基础设施生长Infrastructural development中国在金融方面助力埃塞俄比亚基础设施建设项目的实施,包罗:公路、铁路、水坝和通讯基础设施。

中国资本最初进入埃塞俄比亚主要以国有企业为主,在两国双边协议的框架下,借助中方的援助和优惠贷款,相关项目重点集中在修建和能源领域。主要的标志性项目包罗:China has provieded the financing support to help the development of the infrustructure in Ethiopia including: roads, railways, hydroelectric dams, and telecom infrastructure. The initial flow of Chinese investment into Ethiopia was largely made by state-owned enterprises in the construction and energy sectors on the back of bilateral agreements between the two governments, in exchange for aid and concessional loans from the Chinese government towards these types of projects. Major landmark infrastructural projects include:·亚的斯亚贝巴—阿达玛高速公路Addis Ababa – Adama Expressway·亚的斯亚贝巴—环线公路工程Addis Ababa Ring-road Project·亚的斯亚贝巴—轻轨项目Addis Ababa Light Rail Transit Project·埃塞俄比亚—吉布提铁路Ethio – Djibouti Railway ·吉盖尔·吉贝和特克泽大坝Gilgel Gibe and Tekeze Dams ·华为和中兴通讯基础设施项目Huawei and ZTE Telecom Infrastructure Projects中国的投资在埃塞俄比亚工业园建设方面发挥了重要作用。作为埃塞俄比亚首家工业园,东方工业园由中国民营企业开发建设。


Chinese investment also played a great role in the development of industrial parks in Ethiopia. One of the first industrial parks to be developed in Ethiopia, the Eastern Industrial Park Zone was developed by a Chinese private developer.现在由中国官方和民间投资者开发的工业园包罗:Currently there are several industrial parks being developed by public and private Chinese investors, notable among these are:华坚轻工业园: 作为中国最大的鞋类生产商和出口商,华坚团体于2011年在埃塞俄比亚建设了工厂,并计划在10年间投资20亿美元生长制鞋工业。该公司为Guess和Calvin Klein代工生产,并希望10年内从埃塞俄比亚出口金额到达40亿美元。华坚团体计划在埃塞俄比亚缔造10万个岗位,资助该国成为新的全球制造中心。


Huajian Light Industrial Park: Huajian is One of the largest shoe producers and exporters in China. Huajian set up a factory in Ethiopia in 2011, as part of its plan to invest USD2 billion over 10 years in developing manufacturing clusters focused on shoemaking for export. The company produces shoes for brands such as Guess and Calvin Klein, and hopes to see its exports from Ethiopia reach USD4 billion within ten years. Huajian plans to create 100,000 new jobs in Ethiopia, helping the country become a new international manufacturing hub. Huajian Light Industrial Park currently under construction in Lebu area (South Western outskirts of Addis Ababa) lies on 138 ha of land. The park will specialize in leather and other mixed portfolios of investments.阳光阿达玛工业园:该工业园由来自中国的民营投资企业江苏阳光团体承建。江苏阳光团体的纺织业务拥有年均生产350万件高等男女衣饰以及3500万米精纺毛织物的产能。此外该企业还是世界最大的羊毛纺织和高等衣饰生产基地。位于阿达玛的阳光工业园占地80公顷。

Sunshine Adama Industrial Park: This park is being developed by Jiangsu Sunshine Group, a private Chinese investment group. Jiangsu Sunshine Group’s textile business has annual production capacity of 3.5 million sets of high-grade men’s suits and women’s wear, 35 million meters of superfine worsted wool fabrics. It is also the world's largest wool textile and high-grade apparel manufacturer. The Sunshine Park in Adama is situated on 80 hectares of land.国王阿达玛工业园:国王是中国最大的纺织和服装企业之一。该公司在阿达玛的工业园占地32公顷,主要生产纺织品和衣饰。


Kingdom Adama Industrial Park: Kingdom is one of the largest private Chinese textile & garment companies. It is developing a park on 32 hectares of land in Adama, to manufacture textile and garment.无锡一棉迪热达瓦项目:无锡一棉纺织团体是中国最大的国有纺织企业之一,该公司现在正在埃塞俄比亚迪热达瓦工业园建设大型的纺织工厂。该项目占地51公顷,通过300条纺锤设备生产高端纺线和布料。

现在项目一期已经完成,100条纺锤投入运行。如果产能完全释放,该项目每年能够生产2.6吨纺线和3000万米坯布,缔造3500个就业岗位。Wuxi No.1 Dire Dawa Project: Wuxi Jinmao Co. Ltd, one of the largest state-owned textile companies in China, is establishing a large-scale textile manufacturing factory inside Dire Dawa Industrial Park. Situated on 51 hectares of land, the factory will produce high-end yarns and fabrics with 300 thousand spindles. The first phase of the project is already complete, with 100 thousand spindles in operation. At full capacity, the factory will produce up to 26,000 tons yarns and 30 million meters of gray fabrics annually, and create 3500 jobs.商业互助Trade cooperation中国是埃塞俄比亚的主要商业互助同伴,占据埃塞俄比亚入口量的18%。


China is a leading trading partner to Ethiopia. It accounts for over 18% of total imports. Imported items include machinery & equipment, electronics, textile & apparel, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, chemicals, and other processed products. China is also emerging as the main export destination for some of the key export commodities out of Ethiopia, mainly coffee, sesame, and soybean. However, exports to China are still at around 8% of total exports and Ethiopia currently has a wide trade imbalance with China.投资互助Investment cooperation来自中国的直接投资FDI Inflows from China中国现在已是埃塞俄比亚主要的投资泉源国,同样埃塞俄比亚也日益成为中国重要的投资目的地。2010年至2017年间,中国对埃塞俄比亚的投资占中国对非总投资的21%。2017年,中国主导的投资项目数量占埃塞俄比亚吸引外资项目的一半。


China has emerged as a major FDI sourcing destination for Ethiopia. Ethiopia is an increasingly favored investment destination for China as well, representing more than 21% of Chinese FDI flows into Africa over the period from 2010 – 2017. In 2017, the number of Chinese investment projects accounted for half of the total FDI projects in the country. In the following two years, i.e., 2018 and 2019, the percentage of Chinese investment projects to total FDI projects climbed to 60%, making China the single largest source of FDI into Ethiopia. Both in volume of investment and number of projects, Chinese FDI inflow has averaged at around 27% of total FDI inflows to Ethiopia over the last five years.中国对埃塞俄比亚的投资迅速增长,而且笼罩了多个行业。如前所述,最初的投资主要进入修建和能源领域,主要是由国企主导。然而最近10年,中国对埃投资转移至制造业。

现在凌驾1000家中国企业在埃塞俄比亚运营,缔造了数以万计的就业岗位,改善了收支口体现。现在制造业项目占中国对埃总投资的79%,而修建领域相关投资仅为10%左右。现在在埃塞俄比亚做生意的企业中,凌驾90% 为民营企业。

China has rapidly increased its investment scale in Ethiopia, going into more diversified sectors. As mentioned above, the initial wave of investment went into construction and energy sectors and it was mainly state led. Chinese investments over the past decade however, have primarily focused on manufacturing activities. Currently there are over 1000 Chinese enterprises operating in Ethiopia, creating thousands of job opportunities, and boosting export performance .Manufacturing projects account for about 79% of total FDI inflows from China, in contrast to investments into the construction sector which stands at approximately 10%. And the overwhelming majority (more than 90%) of Chinese enterprises operating in Ethiopia, are privately owned.2020年以来,埃塞俄比亚政府颁布了新的投资条例,并推行了多项经贸投资措施,确保当地和外资企业享受更为优良的商业情况。此外,埃塞俄比亚开放了之前不允许外商投资的领域,这些举措将进一步增加吸引外资量,包罗来自中国的投资。With the introduction of a brand-new investment proclamation this year, and unprecedented number of other reforms introduced in the trade and investment space, the Ethiopian government is hard at work in making the business environment more friendly to local and foreign private sector businesses. This, coupled with the opening up of sectors previously closed for foreign direct investment, will greatly enhance FDI inflows overall, including from our major investment partner - China.促进吸引外资的互助协议Cooperation agreements to promote FDI埃塞俄比亚投资委员会与中国政府各部门和中国民间协会签署了多项框架性协议(体谅备忘录),这些协议包罗:The Ethiopian Investment Commission has signed various framework agreements (Memorandum of Understandings) with various organs of the Chinese government and private sector associations in China. Some examples are:与中国贸促会签署的体谅备忘录:埃塞俄比亚投资委员会与中国贸促会和地方分会签署了一系列互助体谅备忘录,旨在进一步推进双边投资。委员会还主导推动一项新的互助机制——非洲投资与增长互助同伴项目,中国贸促会是其中重要的同伴。

MoUs with China Council for Promotion of Investment and Trade (CCPIT): EIC has signed a number of MoUs with the central and provincial level CCPIT officials, for cooperation in investment promotion and facilitation activities. EIC is also hosting in its premises a project known as Partnership for Investment and Growth in Africa (PIGA), in which the CCPIT is one of the implementing partners.与中国纺织工业团结会签署的体谅备忘录: 此项备忘录于2016年签署,旨在吸引中国投资埃塞俄比亚的纺织和衣饰行业。MoU with China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC): This MoU was signed in 2016 to cooperate with CNTAC to promote Chinese investment into textile and apparel sector of Ethiopia.与广东省政府签署的体谅备忘录:此项备忘录于2017年签署,主要是为了促进广东对埃塞俄比亚修建质料、制鞋、皮革和家具等行业的投资。MoU with Guangdong Provincial Government: This MoU was signed in 2017 with Gungdong provincial government to facilitate and support investment from the province, mainly in building materials, footwear, leather products, and furniture.。